Psychometric Tests

Research in psychometrics and human resources management has produced significant results during the last decades, particularly with the advent of information technology and software engineering. We are now in a position to utilize intelligent software, in order to analyze the personality of a candidate and match this to several sectors of the economy and the society generally. The questionnaires and inventories discussed here have been designed by Ariston Psychometrics to provide reliable services for strategic decision making and national planning, the educator, the employer, as well as the individual who recognizes the value of “know thyself” and self-awareness of Socrates, aiming to become a better person.

The tests are based on state of the art theory and practice documented in international scientific Journals. They are fully automated in that the software records the subject’s responses in real-time, analyses these and produces a report without human (counsellor) intervention. The report then forms the basis for all decision-making and consultancy services. The subject is prompted by a computer program to answer to a series of well-defined questions regarding a) activities, b) preferences, c) intellectual tasks, d) beliefs, e) values, f) motivations, g) logical reasoning, h) verbal, numerical, and mechanical reasoning. Once all the questions are answered, another software module, which is actually an expert system, takes over and proceeds to analyse the answers by utilising modern psychometric and statistical methods, classifying in effect the personality of the individual.

The reports produced by the software contain analytical, quantified results and conclusions regarding the personality of the subject, supporting decision-making related to: a) vocational and career counselling, b) aptitude measurement, c) personnel selection, d) assessment of employees and executives, e) personnel development, f) performance appraisal, g) attitude measurement, h) management development, i) employee counselling, j) human engineering, k) productivity analysis, l) administrative skills measurement, m) public relations, n) psychological assessment and support.

We emphasise that the questionnaires presented here are not I.Q. (Intelligent Quotient), which in our opinion have no place in the 21st century. Several eminent scientists, including Kamin, have already spoken against I.Q. tests for various reasons, including the fact that they are knowledge-dependent rather than personality-dependent, giving particular emphasis on the time taken by the subject to respond to specific questions.

ARISTON test: Career guidance - Vocational counselling

ARISTON test is an expert system for vocational counselling, utilizing advanced rules, algorithms and mathematical models, in order to identify the profession / occupation that suits your personality. When we refer to an "expert system" we imply advanced software and specialised knowledge regarding personality types, special aptitudes and abilities, and corresponding work environments. The software produces a report automatically, following extensive analyses of the answers you give online.

The knowledge contained in the expert database is classified by age, sex, nationality, academic departments, occupations and specialisations, and is based on extensive analyses of thousands of professionals and young people. In other words, the test has been verified and validated on a very large sample of real cases. The results of the report produced can be used to support tasks related to personality analysis, vocational counselling and human resources management. More specifically, the results can:

a) Identify hidden talents, professional inclinations, aptitudes, abilities, and special features of your personality.

b) Verify whether your personality can cope with the requirements of specific work environments or specialisations that requires University education.

c) Verify the practised profession and the degree to which this is compatible with the personality of the individual.

d) Identify alternative vocational interests and occupational areas that are fully compatible with your personality.

e) Support tasks concerning recruitment, transfer and promotion, area of specialisation, placement in departments, vocational and career counselling, and general human resources management..

Brain hemispheres

It is widely accepted that the human brain consists of two hemispheres, each one specializing in specific functions and services, utilizing its own sensors and information processors. It appears that each hemisphere prefers to deal with certain activities and cerebral functions, performing the best it can. This test aims at measuring your “laterality”, that is, the degree to which a hemisphere is developed in relation to the other, your preferences, but most importantly, the way your brain learns.

The academic (learning) environment is often the setting where the learning disabilities of a person first become apparent. We usually notice problems in one or more of the following basic areas: Mathematics, Language, Cognitive development, Short and long term memory, Attention, Concentration, Organization, and Fine motor skills, where a difficulty is otherwise known as dyspraxia or kinaesthetic problem. Generally speaking, a person with learning difficulties faces problems in a) identifying, b) collecting, c) organising, d) manipulating, and e) acting on verbal or non-verbal information.

This test is based on state of the art theory for testing cognitive abilities using spatial and diagrammatic reasoning, beyond the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of cognitive abilities and the Wechsler scales, which evolve around the traditional approach that includes language and mathematical abilities. The test identifies those realms of thought where the subject appears to have
learning difficulties, problems in assimilating new information beyond previous experience and reasoning. Assessing the ability to quickly understand and assimilate new information we can predict how responsive to education and training the person will be. The test is independent of attainment and can be used to provide an indication of intellectual potential.

Emotional intelligence (EQ)

The analysis of our emotional quotient (EQ) contributes to self-knowledge, the ascertainment and characterization of our emotions and our needs, and their adaptation to our long-term plans and objectives; it also contributes to the cultivation of profound relationships with our fellow human beings, who are involved in our social life. In addition, the analysis of EQ may contribute to the improvement of our ability in making our needs correspond to our emotions. Therefore, it is essential
that we define motives (e.g. identification, challenge, perspectives) and activate all of our positive personality traits (e.g. assertiveness, effort, discipline, endurance, resistance, adaptability, flexibility, pliability), as well as external factors (e.g. social relations, communication policy, social awareness, emotional participation, understanding of the emotions of others, definition of boundaries and limits). EQ is widely considered to be important to all the professions, particularly to those that involve human relations and human resources management.

Matching personalities

The test examines the degree to which two people have common personality traits by analysing 7 different psychometric factors. The results from the test can help two people, regardless of sex, to understand each other, to appreciate one another, to know the strengths and the weaknesses of each other and to respect each other. The ultimate objective is to improve their personality, to communicate better and to minimise the posibility of conflicts..

Learning abilities / difficulties

The academic (learning) environment is often the setting where the learning disabilities of a person first become apparent. We  usually notice problems in one or more of the following basic areas: Mathematics, Language, Cognitive development, Short and long term memory, Attention, Concentration, Organization, and Fine motor skills, where a difficulty is otherwise known as dyspraxia or kinaesthetic problem. Generally speaking, a person with learning difficulties faces problems in a) identifying, b) collecting, c) organising, d) manipulating, and e) acting on verbal or non-verbal information.

This test is based on state of the art theory for testing cognitive abilities using spatial and diagrammatic reasoning, beyond the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of cognitive abilities and the Wechsler scales, which evolve around the traditional approach that includes language and mathematical abilities. The test identifies those realms of thought where the subject appears to have
learning difficulties, problems in assimilating new information beyond previous experience and reasoning. Assessing the ability to quickly understand and assimilate new information we can predict how responsive to education and training the person will be. The test is independent of attainment and can be used to provide an indication of intellectual potential.

Learning styles

Evidently, man learns and gains knowledge or skill through action, study, schooling, experience, education, training, and generally, by processing data and information selected by his basic senses (sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing). A learning difficulty, regardless of its cause or nature, does not indicate subnormal intelligence, but rather a learning environment which is not suitable for the person under investigation. This means that the person must be compensated for with special tutoring and a learning environment that is in congruence with his personality traits. The purpose of this test is to discover how a person learns best, that is, modes under which the person gains maximum knowledge or skill. These modes are: a) Auditory, utilising the sound, b) Visual, utilising vision, c) Linguistic, utilising the written word, d) Kinaesthetic, utilising movement, touching, e) Interpersonal, utilising interpersonal relationships, and f) Intrapersonal, showing a preference to study alone and to think independently.

Values

The term “values” is used to illustrate a set of ideas, beliefs and ideals that are acquired during the maturation of a human being and govern the way a person thinks, behaves or socialises, in general. Depending on the sector of human activity from which they derive, values may be described as: Ethical, Social, Cultural, Religious, Artistic, etc.

Once a person has formed his personal value system, he/she will be in a position to choose the way in which they will act in their environment. That is to say, he develops a number of ideas and points of view about important sectors of life and he adopts a particular way of assessing other people’s actions as well as situations of his everyday life. His decisions, his choices and, also, his long-term objectives are, usually, a consequence of his values. Moreover, the individual obtains a behavioural code, which is the result of his defined values and makes him stand out from the others.

Given that a higher level of mental ability is required (sharp perception and judgment, and a mature way of thinking) for realizing the significance of holding a value system, it can be easily understood why people with values demonstrate consistency and firmness in all aspects of their everyday life. The adoption of values in human life offers a feeling of satisfaction and internal peace in everyone, since they lead to a mental and psychological elevation, especially the following, which are examined by this test: 1) Beauty, 2) Love, 3) Teamwork, 4) Fairness, 5) Mercy, 6) Gratitude, 7) Perseverance, 8) Integrity, 9) Kindness, 10) Modesty, 11) Prudence, 12) Spirituality, 13) Courage, 14) Sincerity, 15) Responsibility, 16) Self-denial, 17) Solidarity, 18) Conscientiousness, 19) Equity.

Logic

Logic and psychology belong to the discipline of philosophical educational sciences and contribute directly to the understanding of our inner world, of our consciousness, as well as the way our mind operates. Furthermore, logic investigates thought as a process, its forms, rules and principles, while the linguistic science investigates language, the elements of speech and their structure, grammar and syntax. Logic always explores the process of thinking in connection with language, while linguistic science explores language in connection with the notion which it (the language) expresses.

Based on this approach and on the work of the great educationalist Evangelos Papanoutsos, we proceeded with the design of a test which detects logical abilities. The test checks all the categories of logical sentences, syllogism and combinative thinking. Among them it principally focuses on the following, without requiring special knowledge or experience previously acquired by the examinee: a) Implicative inference, inferred statement, b) Categorical syllogism which depends on transitive syllogism, c) Transitive syllogism, d) Hypothetical syllogism, e) Relational syllogism which depends on transitive syllogism, f) Partial knowledge, probable inference, g) Contradictions in composite statements, h) Logical inference, i) Inductive inference, j) Inference using added determinants, k) Reduction by mixed syllogism.

Work motives

The process of choosing a profession and, at a second level, the process of choosing a specific work environment is closely connected with certain work motives and principles. This test examines the factors that influence an individual when choosing a professional path, including, 1) Recognition of work, 2) Autonomy at work, 3) Prospects for promotion, 4) Exercise of influence and authority, 5) Security, stability and comfort, 6) Financial rewards, 7) Established values and traditions.

These characteristics constitute the driving power in the whole process of selecting a specific work environment but also affect and encourage in a catalytic way the performance of the individual. Hence, having realized his/her work motives, the individual can safely choose the most suitable specialisation, and thereby offer high quality professional services for the benefit of all.

Decision - making

The ability to take decisions is one of the most significant factors for happiness in our daily life. We often realize that the effect is not as important as the decision itself, when made at the right moment. Furthermore, luck plays a very important role in the whole process; as a result, quite frequently a decision is deemed successful, even though it has not been made through careful analysis and standardization of data. However, in many cases the necessary data is not available, while there
are no sufficient prerequisites for preparing and collecting the information relevant for decision-making. This test determines the extent to which a person is capable of, firstly, appreciating the given data and information, and secondly, making the right decision, which usually means selecting the best solution.

Communication

Nowadays, the ability to communicate is considered to be one of the most important factors of socialization, collaboration, welfare and, of course, expression of the inner world of the individual. In order to achieve effective communication, it is necessary to adopt a common protocol for interchanging those messages that provoke, stimulate and arouse others. These messages may be based on the five senses (hearing, feeling, sight, smell, taste), or even on intuition. In our opinion, this ability is as important as thought and logic are, and therefore, we support the conversion of Cartesius's phrase "Cogito, ergo sum" into "I communicate, therefore I exist" [Yannakoudakis 2006].

Self-Esteem

According to the contemporary theory of self-esteem, the greatest problem arising nowadays concerns the difficulty of an individual in correctly assessing his abilities, as well as his environment in general. In many cases, the person is indifferent to the level of his intelligence, to the way other people evaluate him, etc.

An individual's self-esteem is not necessarily developed as a result of his personal experience; it may be derived from the appreciation and the attitudes of others towards him. Self-esteem does not always coincide with the real importance of a person. In many cases, people with many abilities and virtues possess low self-esteem, while, on the other hand, other people with limited potential develop high self-esteem.

Research has established that people with high self-esteem accept themselves, which is a substantial pre-condition for the attainment of emotional stability. They develop healthy interpersonal relationships and they usually undertake an active role in the community they belong to. Their adjustment takes place normally, without being hindered by insurmountable problems, and they possess emotional stability. They are happier than those with lower self-esteem and they possess stronger strategies for facing and enduring - and also overcoming - stressful environmental situations. They view life positively and with a high self-confidence, and they do not easily succumb to external pressures to comply.
Furthermore, people with high self-esteem are steadfast in their preferences, and their realistic self-esteem is consistent with their idealistic self, a situation that protects them from internal conflicts as well as from a feeling of guilt.

This test examines the self-esteem of an individual and the impression others have of him, as well as the extent to which they influence him, so as to make him feel comfortable with himself. What is more, it investigates the individual's attitude towards society and family, and also the way the individual evaluates his personal experience.

Locus of control

The theory of Locus of Control concerns the potential of an individual to control himself and his environment, as well as his beliefs regarding the factors that determine progress and success in life. A person with an internal control orientation tends to believe that many things depend on his own actions and attitude is usually optimistic and assumes that he can overcome most of the obstacles he encounters. A person with an external control orientation tends to believe that he is not capable of influencing his environment, and also being in control himself up to the point he wishes to, since most things depend on factors he cannot control; he is often pessimistic. This test measures the internal and the external locus of control of the individual.

Abilities - Aptitudes

Most professions and work environments require certain basic abilities, including numerical, linguistic, mechanical, and reasoning abilities. These abilities fall under the category of tests measuring the level of cognitive – mental development of the individual and reveal the knowledge that the person has acquired so far under each of these realms of thought. The results from these tests prove to be extremely useful in detecting the strengths and weaknesses of students and workers alike, as well as predicting one’s professional path and progress.

Primary Personality Properties (3P)

Our underlying personality is rather static, but the way we see it is affected by our upbringing and education, as well as by our intelligence (ability to reason). Thus, we may have been taught either to emphasise or suppress aspects of our personality. However, if we can understand what our personality is, we can then make better use of the strengths it gives us, and make allowances for the resultant weaknesses. Because personality is relatively unchanging through adult life, this understanding will be of long-term value to us.

3P is an integrated test that can be used to: a) analyse the personality, b) predict the behaviour of an individual, c) assess and select staff, d) offer occupational guidance, e) assist with personal development, f) assist with clinical diagnosis, particularly neurosis, anxiety, adjustment, and behavioural problems, g) predict marital compatibility and satisfaction, h) help identify students with potential emotional, social and academic problems.

The test is based on internationally accepted personality factors which shape up human behaviour independent of cultural differences. These factors are: Warmth, Reasoning, Emotional stability, Assertiveness, Gregariousness, Dutifulness, Friendliness, Sensitivity, Distrust, Imagination, Reserve, Self-reproach, Radicalism, Self-sufficiency, Orderliness, and Tension. The interpretation of each of these factors is based on research carried out by Professor Marlowe Embree. There is also a special factor which is used to measure the degree of consistency of the answers given by the subject and can be considered as a truth score.

From the study of the results produced by the test, we can understand better ourselves and plan for our future. However, no one can claim that there is an “ideal” personality or an “ideal” measurement. Therefore, the scores achieved by the majority of people (e.g. a Sten score between 4 and 7) can only be considered as benchmarks that guide and inform the counsellor and the subject alike.

Psychopathologic personality traits

The analysis of psychopathologic personality traits is a very sensitive issue and has received a great deal of attention lately. Evidently, the best approach to study this subject is through the adoption of advanced psychometric and mathematical models and fully automated procedures, that psychometric databases.

Some personality traits are static while others are dynamic and evolve with time and space (social, family or work environments). However, the way we see personality traits is affected by our upbringing and education, as well as by our intelligence (ability to reason). Thus, we may have been taught either to emphasise or suppress aspects of our personality. If we can understand what our personality is, we can then make better use of the strengths it gives us, and make allowances for the resultant weaknesses. Because personality is relatively unchanging through adult life, this understanding will be of long-term value to us.

This is an integrated test that can be used in several fields, including: a) clinical psychology and practice, b) clinical diagnosis, including hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, hypomania, c)  behavioural problems, d) personnel assessment and selection, e) personal development, f) predicting marital compatibility and satisfaction, etc.

The test is based on internationally accepted personality factors which diagnose abnormal behaviour independent of cultural differences. With the aim to give information so that the counsellor can understand better the factors of the present test, we present the nearest (equivalent) MMPI factors to our own using the same coding scheme as follows:

Lie score (L)
Validity score (F)
Correction due to attitude (K)
Hypochondriasis (HS)
Depression (D)
Hysteria (HY)
Psychopathy (PD)
Masculinity (MFM)
Femininity (MFF)
Paranoia (PA)
Psychasthenia (PT)
Schizophrenia (SC)
Hypomania (MA)
Introversion (SI)
Neurosis (NE)
Truth score (TR)

RIASEC scale - John Holland

It is an axiom that people search for work environments that are in congruence with them. Similarly, work environments recruit, retain and reward individuals who are in congruence with them. Holland’s universally acknowledged professional – environmental typology uses a special classification of the personality, in order to describe and explain individual differences and similarities, and a classification of work environments, in order to describe and explain differences and similarities between professions. This test implements Holland’s theory fully, using all possible combinations of the six types (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, conventional) rather than only the top 2 or 3 scores, as is the case with most implementations, quantifying the degree of match between the personality and specific academic departments and professions.

Ariston test

What is ARISTON Test

ARISTON test is based on advanced psychometric methodologies and mathematical models with the aim to analyse the personality of an individual and match this with specific professions. The test is fully automated, which means that the individual answers a series of well-defined questions on the computer, the questions are analysed and cross-referenced and the vocational profile is then produced, without human intervention. The questions are part of a specially designed battery of tests, including self-esteem, locus of control, personality, interests (according to the theory of Holland), aptitudes and abilities etc. The software is in fact an expert system based on research work carried out by Professor E. J. Yannakoudakis. It embodies human knowledge regarding personality types, special aptitudes and abilities, and corresponding working environments. We can thus claim that the results are objective.

The test utilises a special algorithm (intelligent software) to test the validity of the answers given. In other words, the answers are analysed and a validity score (truth score) is computed, which in fact measures the degree of sincerity in the answers. The score also enables the counsellor to evaluate the credibility of the answers and, consequently, to assess the results and the conclusions regarding the occupational profile of the individual.

The knowledge contained in the database of the tests is classified by age, sex, academic departments, occupations and specialisations, and is based on extensive analyses of thousands of professionals as well as students from the ages of 13 onwards. In other words, the tests have been verified and validated on a very large sample of real cases. The results of the present report can be used to support the tasks of human resources management and personal development. More specifically, the results can:

  1. Identify hidden talents, professional inclinations, aptitudes, abilities, and special features of personality.
  2. Establish whether the personality of the individual can cope with the requirements of a specific working environment.
  3. Verify the practised profession and the degree to which this is compatible with the personality of the individual.
  4. Identify alternative vocational interests and occupational areas that are fully compatible with the personality of the individual.
  5. Support tasks concerning recruitment, transfer and promotion, area of specialisation, placement of individuals in departments, vocational and career counselling, and general human resources management.

Theoretical considerations

In contemporary society it is important for the individual to realise his/her potential and special features of the personality he/she possesses, for reasons of self-realisation, self-improvement, and “know thyself”, as Socrates used to say. In all cases, the ultimate objective is to aid decision-making, as far as personality matters are concerned.

People frequently choose to follow a profession without careful study of its associated environment, or the special aptitudes and abilities it might demand of them. For example, an engineer has to have special aptitudes in mathematics, and a social scientist has to have special aptitudes in dealing with people. Moreover, there are environments that demand a mixture of abilities and personality factors from a wide range of domains of human knowledge and sectors of the economy, including primary (e.g. agriculture), secondary (e.g. manufacturing, industry), and tertiary (e.g. services).

Our personality, aptitudes and abilities - inherent and acquired – play a significant role in our daily life. Thus, it is vital to study carefully what we can do, what we are built for and of course what is on offer around us, in order to plan for our future. Although the professional opportunities, to a great extent, depend on the geographical area we live in, our personality is something we can analyse and discuss with a counsellor, with the aim of becoming better persons and of improving our social standing generally.

This battery of tests gives us the opportunity to explore our personality, our aptitudes and abilities, and also to measure the degree of our readiness to embark upon specific occupational tasks and activities. We can thus set targets, aims and objectives and generally prepare ourselves in order to be in a position to complete effectively the assignments within our professional environment.

Bearing these factors in mind, we can take the right decisions and adopt the strategy most suitable in our case and our selected work environment. However, we stress the need for a specially trained counsellor who will help you draft your plans, and set aims and objectives.

Finally, we consider it as an axiom that we are all good at something, and that each and every one of us can excel in certain areas. The question is simple: "how do we identify these areas, and what opportunities will the individual have to exemplify his/her talents".

Administration and support

The subject uses a unique personal code to activate the test and proceeds to answer all the questions displayed on specially designed screen forms. The software is user-friendly and does not require any special training. The duration of the test depends on the combination of the questionnaires (the battery) selected by the counsellor. The answers are then analysed by an expert system, which uses advanced statistical, clustering and ranking techniques in order to produce this report.

For further details regarding the integrated psychometric series, please contact Ariston Psychometrics (35 Kolokotroni Street, Kifissia, 14562 Athens, Greece, Tel. +30.210.8083035, +30.210.8084695, Fax. +30.210.8081645, www.computeracademy.gr).

The report produced

An indicative list of the contents of the report produced is presented below:

  1. Prologue: Theoretical background, Administration and support
  2. Personal details
  3. Duration of administration
  4. Truth scores
  5. Theoretical foundations: Personality, Self-Esteem, Locus of control, CAPS scale
  6. Analytical assessment: Personality, Self-Esteem, Locus of control, CAPS scale
  7. Specialised psychometric factors: Order by test - Table 1, Order by factor - Table 2
  8. Advanced statistical analyses: Standard measures, Rank-Score of specialised factors, degree of differentiation
  9. Work environments and secondary factors
  10. Personality - Environment - Consistency - Differentiation
  11. Matching departments, Specialities and Rank: Current interests
  12. Appendix A - Psychometrics and vocational counselling: Aims, objectives and decision making, Vocational guidance, Origins of psychometrics, The need for organised vocational counselling